Sleep Related Movement Disorders

Sleep related movement disorders

There are certain movement disorders where movements appear only during sleep. The common sleep related movement disorders in children are Restless Legs Syndrome, Periodic Limb Movement Disorder, Sleep-Related Bruxism and Rhythmic Movement Disorder.

Restless Legs Syndrome

Restless leg syndrome is an urge to move the legs that is usually, but not always, accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant leg sensations. The symptoms begin or worsen during rest or inactivity and symptoms are partially or totally relieved by movements such as walking or stretching for at least as long as the activity continues. The symptoms only occur or are worse in the evening or night than during the day.

Periodic Limb Movement Disorder

This is characterized by rhythmic jerking of the legs during sleep with the sleeper generally unaware of the motor activity. At least four leg movements separated by 5 to 90 seconds between onsets of successive movements must occur in succession to be scored as Periodic Limb Movement Disorder. Periodic Limb Movement Disorder is diagnosed by a Polysomnography.

Sleep-Related Bruxism

In sleep-related bruxism (ie, tooth grinding or clenching), tonic contraction of the mastication muscles occur frequently.

Rhythmic Movement Disorder

The movements of rhythmic movement disorder (RMD) consist of stereotyped contractions of large muscle groups during drowsiness or sleep. Subtypes of RMD are described such as head banging and body rocking.