Congenital Lung Diseases

What are Congenital Lung Malformations?

Problems in the baby’s lungs which are present since birth are known as “congenital lung malformations”. These would usually start developing while a baby’s lungs are developing in the womb.

Can these be detected on an Ultrasound before?

Yes, some of them can be detected on an anomaly scan. Some mother’s would present to us with some lesions found on an ultrasound.  There are usually followed up in association with fetal medicine experts.

Can they present later in life?

Many of these problems  may not have any symptoms at birth. They might present later in life with pneumonias.  Some might be detected just on a chest xray done for any unrelated reason.

What are the types of congenital lung lesions?

  • There are a broad range of lung problems. They can involve the airways of children, the lung parenchyma or the mediastinum (structures in the space between the lungs).
  • Most common are cysts or abnormal closed sacs inside the body that contain fluid. Sometimes they can be solid or mixed (partly cystic and solid).

How can they be confirmed?

They might be suspected on a Chest Xray but would need a CT Chest for confirmation.

What is the treatment?

  • It depends on the type and size of the malformation. Some might be small and incidentally detected on xray. Others might be large and might threaten the life of a baby.
  • The treatment has to be individualized. Many of these involving the lung parenchyma and mediastinum would need surgery.